A Statewide Simulation Survey

By: Alaina Herrington, Sabrina Beroz, Melanie Cason


The use of simulation has rapidly advanced as a teaching-learning strategy in nursing education. The NCSBN National Simulation study provides evidence that up to 50 percent of clinical experience can be substituted with simulation under conditions used in the study (Hayden, Smiley, Alexander, Kardong-Edgren, & Jeffries, 2014). Concerns emerged as prelicensure nursing programs began to replace clinical experiences with simulation without adequate faculty development, business plans, or administration support (Alexander et al., 2015).

Many states are answering the call with the development of simulation consortiums or alliances. How then do these statewide simulation initiatives identify the unique needs of each state? We discuss one survey used in three states as evidence for developing simulation training. The results have shown that many schools lack appropriate facilities for conducting simulations and do so with educators not trained in the science of simulation.


Maryland Clinical Simulation Resource Consortium (MCSRC)

The Maryland Clinical Simulation Resource Consortium (MCSRC) was funded in 2015 as a five-year statewide initiative authorized under the auspices of the Nurse Support Program II and jointly approved by the Health Services Cost Review Commission and the Maryland Higher Education Commission. The aim of the MCSRC is to create a sustainable increase in the quality and quantity of simulation used in nursing education. A survey of simulation practices used in prelicensure nursing simulation programs was developed using the NCSBN Simulation Guidelines for Prelicensure Nursing Programs and the INACSL Standards of Best Practice: SimulationSM (Beroz, 2017). The survey, known as the Program Assessment Survey for Simulation (PASS), provided evidence for a train the trainer curriculum in teaching simulation education leaders. Data showed that one size did not fit all. Three levels were created across Benner’s theory of novice to expert (2001) inclusive of simulation content on theory, standards, methods, curriculum integration, beginning and advanced debriefing, and evaluation. To date, 154 nurse educators have participated in the train the trainer program. https://cms.montgomerycollege.edu/mcsrc/


Mississippi Academy for Simulation Training

In 2017, the Hearin Foundation provided a four-year grant to the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) to begin the Mississippi Academy for Simulation Training (MAST). This grant was designed to establish a unique, statewide coordination of simulation-based training for the nursing workforce. Through the grant, UMMC provides free/low-cost simulation educator training, access to the new UMMC simulation education facilities, and the development of common benchmarks for simulation education. The simulation educator training was developed based on data from a statewide simulation assessment conducted using the PASS survey. The online train the trainer simulation education course contains seven simulation modules: theory, design, facilitation, debriefing, interprofessional education, standardized patients, and evaluation. As of fall 2018, 14 nurse educators have completed the seven- week course, and 15 nurse educators are currently enrolled in the program. https://umc.edu/mast


South Carolina Nursing Education Simulation Alliance

In 2017, the Promise of Nursing for South Carolina Nursing School Grant Program, administered by the Foundation of the National Student Nurses Association, provided a one-year grant for the project “Taking Student Learning Higher with Simulation Collaboration” to improve the use of simulation and nursing education in the state. This grant also included support for the creation of a statewide alliance to promote collaboration among schools of nursing and support best practices. Baseline survey information was obtained to inform the initial workshop/conference and the revision of the South Carolina Board of Nursing Position Statement for the Use of Simulation in Nursing Education. Following a statewide workshop in July 2018, the PASS survey was provided to all attendees for completion.


Alexander, M., Durham, C., Hooper, J., Jeffries, P., Goldman, N., Kardong-Edgren, S.,…Tillman, C. (2015). NCSBN simulation guidelines for prelicensure nursing programs. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 6, 39-42.

Benner, P. (2001). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice (Commemorative Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Health.

Beroz, S. (2017). A statewide survey of simulation practices using NCSBN simulation guidelines. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13, 270-277.

Hayden, J., Smiley, R., Alexander, M., Kardong-Edgren, S., & Jeffries, P. (2014). NCSBN national simulation study: A longitudinal, randomized, controlled study replacing clinical hours with simulation in prelicensure nursing education. Journal of Nursing Regulation, 5, S1-S64.

INACSL Standards Committee. (2016, December). INACSL Standards of best practice:  SimulationSM. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 12(S), S1-S47.

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